“….an armed resistance movement takes place in the womb of oppression, its seeds are to be found in the eternal quest for equality and freedom.”
Guerrilla warfare is defined as,” a typical military action using small mobile irregular forces to carry out surprise tactics against hostile regular forces.” Presently guerrilla war is being fought in many places between states and nations for “national self-determination”. Guerrilla war is an extension of politics by means of arm conflict; it is a form of political war guided by political rather military considerations. It is a people’s militant social protest against oppression. Guerrilla is a spokesman of people. Before Guerrilla war begins all other peaceful solutions should have been proved worthless and people must believe that there is no alternative and guerrilla war is compelling. Since the occupation of Balochistan in 1948 by Pakistan Army, Baloch people failed to get equality, justice, cultural, political and economic rights with peaceful means and ultimately they decided to wage their struggle for independence. Before this in 1971 Bengali people, after 25 year oppression by Pak. army (Majority Punjabi) got independence sacrificing 3 million people and rape of 100,000 Bengali women by Pakistani Army, also a unique example that majority fought to liberate from a minority.
In guerrilla war when the main objective is fixed by a guerrilla organization, it is important to study the order of steps leading to the achievement of the main objective. It is very important to explain to the people and to fighters the purpose of struggle and benefits which they get after libration, as people fight for economic benefits, social justice and equality.
Basically guerrilla war is a war of masses; people’s full help is indispensible. The principle weapon for guerrilla force is not their rifles but their close relationship with their people for home they are fighting. Guerrilla affords to run away, hide or sink into the population that is a sea, in which guerrilla swims like a fish. Without active support of people guerrilla would be a mere bandit and will not survive longer. People are guerrilla’s camouflage, his quartermaster, his recruitment office, his communication network, his efficient all seeing intelligence service. When state forces cannot capture or kill guerrilla than they attack on peaceful civilians to crush their support (drain the sea), but this is as to put petrol on flames. This is exactly what Pakistan army is doing with Baloch people.
Guerrilla fighter is also a social reformer; he is a guiding angel who has fallen in the zone, always helping poor people technically, morally, culturally and economically. The role of guerrilla leader is very important; he should be brave and visionary. There is a Balochi aphorism, “if a tiger lead one hundred jackals they fight like tiger and if a jackal leads one hundred tiger they run away like jackal.”
In guerrilla warfare deception, constant mobility, secrecy are main tactics. Ernesto Chae Guevara say’s about deception, “hence when able to attack we must see unable, when using our forces we must see inactive, when we are near we must believe enemy we are faraway, when faraway we must make him believe we are near.” Chairman Mao say’s “the enemy advances we retreat, the enemy camps we harass, the enemy tires we attack, the enemy retreat we pursue and when enemy is in superior strength we evade him.” Regarding mobility Chae advises, constant mobility, one night in one place. We saw in Baloch movement many Sarmachar (guerrilla) were killed or captured due to long stay in one place e.g., at home, in cities, towns. The guerrilla mother hive with most notable guerrilla chief should stay in less dangerous places. Secrecy is also important, due to unnecessary sharing secrecies and use of mobile phones our struggle suffered a lot. We should have training courses to overcome such weaknesses, as the army has modern US, Chinese intelligence equipments.
In guerrilla war terrorism is generally said to be, ineffective and harmful in its results, usually it victimizes innocent people. It can only be used for death of some high profile oppressor leaders, it is important to know that killing low profile opposites, informers etc; are harmful, such people can be harassed and terrorized easily by other means, if such are killed many will turn against movement. Sabotage is very useful in warfare; in Balochistan giving economic loss is much more painful to enemy than killing its mercenaries, where one is killed hundred are there for recruitment.
The perfect knowledge of the ground is also very important, Chae say’s ground should be as clear before guerrilla as creases of his palm. It benefits a lot if guerrilla is from war zone as they have good knowledge of ground and people. If guerrilla group comes encirclement of enemy they should engage enemy till night, night is best friend of guerrilla. A wounded companion must never for any reason be left at the mercy of enemy. With each combating group there should be 2-3 unarmed persons to carry snatched ammunition or wounded comrades to safe place.
Regarding guerrilla combats, the fundamental principle of guerrilla war is, “that no battle, combat or skirmish to be fought unless it will be won”. Chae says “you should attack from one side only if other three sides are safe to escape“. There is aphorism, “know yourself and your adversary then you will be able to fight hundred battles without a single disaster”, Sun Tzu say’s “do many calculations before war, leads to victory and little calculations before war, to defeat.” General Giap said, “American wants to fight quickly; to fight a protracted war is big defeat for them”. An American General wrote, “Giap knows if casualties and expenses increase than France and United States will be defeated in Paris and Washington”. Similarly if guerrilla war is protracted and economic losses increase Pakistan will be defeated in Islamabad. We saw the above basic principles of combat are usually ignored and our movement is suffering.
Unfortunately Baloch guerrilla organizations are not united although having no ideological difference; if they unite they can easily defend their mother land. Baba Khair Baksh Marri (late) said “if we unite, imperialist forces are compelled to negotiate with us, he also desired, for a strong organization and a protracted Guerrilla War”. In national libration movements united front is must, General Giap wrote, “The war of libration of the Vietnamese people proves that, in the face of an enemy as powerful as he is cruel, victory is possible only by uniting the whole people within the bosom of a firm and wide national united front based on worker and peasant.”
As Pakistani establishment decided to turn Baloch people into minority in Balochistan, by settling Punjabi’s, Pashtoon and Beharies and Chinese in Gwader and capture whole coastal belt, our heartland, Baloch waged a war, a holy war, for their survival, their identity, to protect their land and resources. They know it is their war; they have to plane it, fight it and win it. They are sacrificing their lives, about 35 thousand Baloch political workers are missing, regularly mutilated bodies are being dumped in revenge of killed army persons by Sarmachar (Guerrillas), and many mass graves were found. China Pakistan economic corridor is a nightmare for Baloch people.
French General, Andre wrote his experience in Algeria and Vietnam in 1973, he say’s “the weak seem to have defeated the strong, but actually just the reverse was true from a moral point of view, which bring us to the conclusion that limited wars are primarily fought on the field of morale.”Today the main aim of Pakistan army is to destroy the strong morale strength of Baloch people; for thisو they successfully staged “Mastug Drama” by killing 20 innocent Pashtoon, and then launched a full-scale propaganda campaign and war against Baloch people.
The Afghan Tribune | Dr Hani Baloch | Published: March 09, 2016, 09:26 PM